Obesity is a complex chronic disease characterised by excess body fat. To understand, it can be defined as having extra body mass. BMI (Body Mass Index), which measures body fat according to height and weight, is used to measure obesity. Obesity is not simply a cosmetic issue – it can lead to various serious health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Obesity also affects the body in other ways. It can cause joint pain, sleep apnea, and respiratory problems. Obesity occurs when someone has an imbalance of energy intake and expenditure. This can be due to various factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and underlying medical conditions.
Obesity also accounts for many other psychological issues like depression, negative self-image and anxiety. For this reason, many people struggling with obesity choose to undergo weight loss surgery. However, there are different types of obesity, and each type requires a different approach.
Different types of obesity
Healthcare providers classify obesity based on BMI to evaluate the severity. You are overweight if your BMI is between 25.0 and 29.9 kg/m2. Obesity is further classified as below:
- Class I Obesity : BMI 30 to <35kg/m2
- Class II Obesity: BMI 35 to 40kg/m2
- Class III Obesity: BMI 40kg/m2 and above
Class I Obesity is considered the mildest form, while Class III Obesity is the most severe. Based on the fat and weight distribution, it is also classified as central Obesity (also known as “apple-shaped”), peripheral Obesity (“pear-shaped”), and mixed Obesity. Central Obesity is more common in men, while peripheral Obesity is more common in women.
Weight loss surgery can be an effective treatment for all three types of obesity. However, the approach will differ depending on the severity of the condition. For example, someone with class 1 obesity may be able to lose weight through lifestyle changes and medication. Someone with class 2 or 3 obesity will likely need surgery to achieve significant weight loss.
If you are struggling with Obesity, it’s important to consult a professional expert surgeon who can help you understand your options and make the best decision for your health. The good news is that weight loss can help to improve these conditions. Therefore it is so essential for people who are obese to seek treatment. By losing weight, they can improve their health and quality of life.
Signs and Symptoms
It is obvious when one has gained weight. However, there may be signs of piling on extra pounds way before. There are signs and symptoms way beforehand and walking through the stages of obesity.
- Sluggish and tired feeling throughout the day
- No strength for normal activities
- Sleep Apnea (Lack of good sleep)
- Sleeping too much
- Difficulty maintaining personal hygiene and doing everyday tasks
Management of Obesity
Managing obesity involves surgical and non-surgical methods. Based on the severity of obesity, the treatment modalities are selected. Losing weight is not just a treatment or a brief therapy. Neither can one achieve results with crash diets and detoxes. Sustainable results where the patient loses the excess weight and sustains the healthy weight without losing their strength and rigour is the successful management of obesity. This can be achieved only with a committed team of healthcare professionals, including the physician, dietician, psychiatrist or therapist, surgeon, exercise therapist and other sub-specialities. Needless to say, the patient’s commitment along with the right mindset is crucial for the health goals.
When speaking of weight loss, we talk of permanent weight loss as with diet, exercise, and medication, patients may lose weight but regain most of it. There is also a chance of adverse health and psychological effects with this type of weight gain. Yo-yoing between weight gain and weight loss can make patients completely lose faith in the process and give up on their health goals altogether. In such cases, surgical options are better fitting and yield great results.
The following evaluation is mandatory to go on a surgical weight loss journey:
- Screening phase to evaluate the BMI, co-morbidities like metabolism, hormonal profile, other diseases, and syndromes.
- A comprehensive weight-loss program including diet, lifestyle changes and routine exercise
- Maintenance phase -this stage may last for the rest of the life; however, it is mandatory for at least 2 -3 years post weight loss surgery.
Behaviour Therapy and Counselling
Excessive eating or binge eating can be rooted in an underlying psychological issue. Counsellors, support groups and therapists can help you reach the underlying cause. There is a learning curve in accepting one’s issues, but it can eradicate the problem better. Cognitive behaviour therapy can play a supporting role in one’s weight loss journey. Managing stress and addressing the underlying emotional quotient while going through weight loss can create a positive experience and, thus, a long-lasting one.
Diet and Nutrition
Managing weight through diet is not just an option for weight loss without surgery but is also a mandate post-surgery. A thorough understanding of the patient’s family history, lifestyle, and professional and personal profile is needed to lay out a diet plan. There is no one plan fits all or a mathematical gauging of weight and height to fit you into a ready-made diet plan. Our team creates a diet plan that is unique to you, tracks your progress, and takes your feedback to ensure you are on it. After all, the results depend on your acceptance of the plan.
However, many things are under your control to manage and are a no-brainer when it comes to a healthy lifestyle.
- Cut out excess calories. The liquid sugar in the form of sodas, ready to drink juices and other energy drinks. They are loaded with sugar and do more damage than any benefit.
- Eat in moderation and eat on time. Don’t wait till you are hungry. Eat at a decent meal hour and eat in moderation. Prepping your meals goes a long way in eating healthy too.
- Eat whole foods, vegetables and fruits. Eat local. Avoid packaged food, refined food and stale food.Don’t fuss about the calories. You can achieve your goals as long as you maintain healthy eating habits consistently.
Increased Activity and Exercise
We live in modern times with demanding lifestyles that leave us little time to exercise. That gym membership or the pilates class you signed up for may feel far-fetched given the amount of juggling one has to do between personal and professional life. Feeling motivated can also be challenging when you are already overweight and carrying other comorbidities.
Weight loss is a coin, with diet on one side and exercise on the other. What you can do – is keep moving. As long as you are active, you are burning excess calories. You slip the diet rope; it is fine. You just keep moving. Soon you fall into this increased activity habit, and it becomes part of your life. Healthcare professionals will ask you to walk or jog at least five times weekly.