Anal fissures are small tears in the mucosa (thin lining) of the anus. They can be deep enough to extend into the muscle tissue. Anal fissures are common, affecting both men and women, and usually occur after a strenuous bowel movement. Anal fissures occur when the tissue lining the anus or rectum becomes stretched or torn. This can happen due to constipation, childbirth, or other activities that strain the anal canal. It is usually diagnosed upon clinical examination and can be treated non-surgically.
Anal fissures can be painful, but they are usually not serious. With proper treatment, most anal fissures will heal within a few weeks.
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of an anal fissure include pain during bowel movements, itching, bleeding, and soreness.
Diagnosis and tests
Fissures are diagnosed by your surgeon with a physical examination by inspecting your anal region.
An anal fissure is usually diagnosed upon clinical examination and can be treated non-surgically. However, if there are multiple fissures or fissures which are resistant to medical management, they can be treated via laser approach.
Dietary supplements and foods rich in dietary fiber, along with proper lifestyle management to control stress, help alleviate this condition.
Lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) is the surgery of choice for chronic fissures. The inner sphincter muscle of the anus is repaired by removing a part of it, which reduces muscle spasms. This reduces pain and allows healing. Patients can resume their routine 1-2 weeks after the surgery. However, they must take extreme precautions with their diet to prevent constipation.